The objective of this course to have a basic and practical knowledge of how the spheroid is projected on to a plane chart. The trainee is to have knowledge of other types of projection. The use of charts of appropriate scale for various purposes is very important and should be stressed. It is also important to have charts of the latest issue or latest update. The trainee should therefore be familiar with the procedures for correction of charts and publications including chart catalogues and Notices to Mariners, worldwide and national.